a. There is a relationship and it is between certain types of lung cancer and both smoking and being exposed to second-hand smoke.
b. Exposure to carcinogens such as asbestos and uranium account for a greater portion of lung cancer than does tobacco use.
c. Radon takes precedence over tobacco smoke as a factor responsible for lung cancer.
d. Tobacco smoking is associated with the majority of lung cancers of all types.
154. Management of an acute attack of asthma might include administration of which medications? Mark all that apply.
a. Subcutaneous epinephrine
b. Inhaled albuterol
c. Oral corticosteroids
d. IV theophylline
e. Inhaled cromolyn sodium
153. Correct answer: d.
Tobacco smoking has been shown to be related to the development of all types of lung cancer, not just certain types. Second-hand smoke is also a risk factor as is exposure to chemicals including asbestos, uranium, and radon but they do not account for more cases of lung cancer than tobacco use.
154. Correct answers: a, b, and d.
Epinephrine stimulates the beta-2 adrenergic receptors on the respiratory smooth muscle resulting in bronchodilation. Albuterol is a short-acting, beta 2 agonist bronchodilator. Theophylline is a methylxanthine bronchodilator. Subcutaneous administration or inhalation yields a rapid onset of action. Oral corticosteroids are used for persistent wheezing not for emergency management of an acute attack. Cromolyn sodium is not used for acute attacks; it is a mast cell stabilizer whose effectiveness depends on regular use.