a. Pursed-lip breathing
b. Persistent productive cough
c. Grunting at the end of expiration
d. Prolonged expiration
156. Which laboratory results are consistent with long-term COPD? Mark all that apply.
155. Correct answer: b.
Persistent productive cough is not a symptom of emphysema rather there is minimal cough and sputum production. Clients with emphysema automatically use pursed-lip breathing to facilitate exhalation, which is prolonged due to airway narrowing or collapse on expiration and ends with a grunt.
156. Correct answers: a, b, and c.
COPD is characterized by a decrease in oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide so hypoxemia and hypercapnia are expected. Erythrocytosis or an increase in RBCs also occurs as a compensatory effort to maintain tissue oxygenation. It is frequently seen as PaO2 levels fall below 55 mmHg.