B. Nutrition 营养
1. Review the physician's prescriptions regarding the NPO status before surgery.
2. Withhold solid foods and liquids as prescribed to avoid aspiration; usually for 6 to 8 hours before general anesthesia and for approximately 3 hours before surgery with local anesthesia.
3. Insert an IV line and administer IV fluids, if prescribed; IV catheter size should be large enough to administer blood products if they are required.
4. Administer parenteral nutrition (PN) as prescribed; usually PN is prescribed for clients who are malnourished, have protein or metabolic deficiencies from underlying disease, or cannot ingest foods.
C. Elimination 排泄
1. Ifthe client is to have intestinal or abdominal surgery, then an enema, laxative,or both may be prescribed the day or night before surgery.
2. The client should void immediately before surgery.
3. Insert a Foley catheter, if prescribed; Foley catheters should be emptied immediately before surgery, and the nurse should document the amount and characteristics of the urine.