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ISPN考试复习指南(460)

发表日期:2017-07-06 | 来源 :国际护士网 | 作者 :www.the-nurses.com |点击数: 次 收听:
 

  B. Syphilis 梅毒

  1. Description 说明

  a. Syphilis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the organism Treponema pallidum.

  梅毒为慢性感染性疾病,由苍白密螺旋体病菌引起。

  b. Transmission is by physical contact with syphilitic lesions, which usually are found on the skin, mucous membranes of the mouth, or genitals.

  传播途径为接触杨梅疮,该病通常见于皮肤、口腔粘膜或外生殖器。

  c. The infection may cause abortion or premature labor and is passed to the fetus after the fourth month of pregnancy as congenital syphilis.

  感染可引起流产或早产,在第4孕周时作为先天性梅毒传给胎儿。

  2. Assessment 评估

  a. Primary Stage 一期

  Mostinfectious stage.

  最具感染性

  Appearance of ulcerative, painless lesions produced by spirochetes at point of entry into the body.

  出现溃疡性无痛病变,由螺旋体病菌引起,见于病菌入体部位。

  b. Secondary Stage 二期

  Highly infectious stage.高感染期。

  Appearance of lesions about 6 weeks to 6 months after primary stage located anywhere on skin and mucous membranes.

  一期后6周至6个月出现病变,可位于皮肤和粘膜的任何部位。

  Generalized lymphadenopathy.

  全身性淋巴结病。

  c. Tertiary Stage 三期

  Entrance of spirochetes into internal organs, causing permanent damage; symptoms occur 10 to 30 years after untreated primary lesion.

  螺旋菌进入内脏,引起永久性破坏;未经治一期病变后10-30年出现症状。

  Invasion of central nervous system, causing meningitis, ataxia, general paresis, and progressive mental deterioration.

  侵入中枢神经系统,引起脑膜炎、共济失调、全身瘫痪及进行性精神衰退。

  Deleterious effects on aortic valve and aorta.

  害及主动脉瓣与主动脉。

  3. Interventions 措施

  a. Obtain a serum test (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory or rapid plasmareagin) for syphilis on the first prenatal visit; prepare to repeat the test at 36 weeks' gestation because the disease may be acquired after the initial visit.

  首次产前就诊时获取梅毒血清试验(性病研究化验室或快速血浆反应素试验)结果;准备在36孕周时再次试验,因为也有可能在初次就诊后得病。

  b. If the test result is positive, treatment with an antibiotic such as penicillin may be necessary.

  若试验结果阳性,可能有必要进行抗生素治疗,如青霉素。

  c. Instruct the client that treatment of her partner is necessary if infection is present.

  指导患者,若存在感染,则有必要对其配偶进行治疗。

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